For capital construction works to clean coffee into ice grass coffee along with a larger width coffee trees on each side of 0.5 m. Each year 5-6 times weeding.
For coffee to clean grass KD 3-4 times a year across the whole area.
To eradicate the perennial grasses, capable of asexual reproduction such as reeds, grasses can bear … herbicide active ingredients glyphosate as Round Up, Spark, Nufarm … quantitatively 4-6 liters / 400-500 liters of water / ha. Spraying at the grass grow strong (30-40 cm tall reeds, grass bears 10-15 cm high).
Every year at the beginning of the dry season to kill weeds conducted around coffee plantations to fight fire.
Manure is applied regularly for 4-5 years with volumes of 10-15 m3 / ha for good soil (humus over 3%), on bad soil fertilizer periodic doses 2-3 years as above. Without manure can replenish the soil with organic green fertilizers or other organic fertilizers. Annually conducted bury the crop residues in batches as small twigs, leaves and coffee pods.
Organic fertilizer is applied in grooves in the head or the rainy season, trench dug along one side of the tub 20 cm wide, 25-30 cm deep and after fertilizer application should install it. The trench was dug in behind the other direction.
1.2.2. Chemical fertilizers
To determine fertilizer regime and reasonable balance for each region should be based on soil fertility and productivity capabilities of the garden. These areas can not analyze soil conditions, the leaves can be applied to the fertilizer is as follows:
Table 1: The amount of fertilizer to 1 ha under coffee (kg / ha)
There are nutritional equivalent of single fertilizers
The fertilizer is being applied as 4 times a year
– Stage 1 (the dry season, combined with irrigation): Apply 100% assigned SA.
– Stage 2 (early rainy season): 30% urea, 30% potash and phosphate 100%.
– Activity 3 (mid-season): 40% urea, 30% potash.
– Activity 4 (before the end of the rainy season 1 month): 30% urea, 40% potash.
Particularly in the most (new plant): the entire phosphate are manuring. Urea and potash fertilizer is divided equally and 2 times in the rainy season.
How to apply
Phosphate spread over the surface from 30-40 cm root. Do not mix FMP with fertilizer.
Potash and nitrogen fertilizer can be mixed thoroughly and immediately. Dig the groove around the coffee trees, 10-15 cm wide, 5 cm deep and covered by soil spreading.
Depending on the climate and weather of each region may apply directly to the irrigation technique which has created original water tank for coffee or Sprinklers with different irrigation regimes. The area has marked dry season and may extend the implementation of the irrigation regime after:
The amount of water is higher than the norm for the first time on 10-15% above the norm.
The timing of irrigation was first determined when the flower bud has fully developed in the outer combustion of twigs, usually occurs after the end of the rainy season 2-2.5 months. During the irrigation season to monitor rainfall to adjust watering or irrigation cycle (35-40 mm of rainfall may substitute for one irrigation)
1.3. Create shape
1.3.1. Creating the basic
Is performed during capital construction to create the framework for the tree canopy consists of the following works:
If planting 1 tree / pit must proceed immediately raises one’s father from the first year in the position as close to the ground as possible. Tree Planting 2 / pit father raised more unless otherwise diffusion plant.
– First, the 1.3-1.4 m tall tree tops brake 1.2-1.3 m in height.
– The second time, when there is 50-70% spike Level 1 Level 2 branches arise conduct bud culture beyond old canopy top. Each animal body a 0.4 m high bud and maintenance of tree height from 1.7-1.8 m. The excess shoots should be removed regularly.
1.3.2. Take off
Coffee trees are cut business 2 times a year.
Immediately after harvest include the following works:
– Cut off the stems void (dry branches, pest, small weak …), cut off a number of secondary branches in the upper canopy.
– Trim the old stems to set nutrition inside the secondary branches.
– Cut the branches that grow to touch the ground.
The second time
In mid season thinning secondary shoots sprouting in the unfavorable position (deep in the foliage, erect, growing more crowded secondary branches on the fire) to be ventilated canopy.
1.4. Room pests
Aphids green scales (coccus viridis), brown soft scales (Saissetia hemisphaerica), mealybugs (Pseudococcus sp.).
The bugs are usually focused on small parts of the plant as excess buds, foliage, fruit … for sucking premature defoliation and fruit trees that are exhausted and can cause plant death. Aphids develop strong all year but harmful in the dry season and coffee on capital construction. Ants are insects involved spreading bedbugs.
– Clean grass in batches, remove the stems touch the ground to limit the spread of bed bugs through comments.
– Use one of the drugs Bi 58, Subatox, Suprathion (Supracide), 0.2% concentration Pyrinex … except bug spray. For many plants should be sprayed 2 times bedbugs 7-10 days apart. Note only be sprayed on the tree bugs, no periodic spraying not spray the entire area.
b. Mealybugs rootworm (Pseuducoccus citri)
Aphids often concentrated at the roots but if the aphid densities climb down roots spreading horizontally, root hairs and combined with concrete-forming fungi stormed around the roots to prevent pesticide exposure to bedbugs. The wounds formed by sucking aphids facilitate infiltration causing fungal root rot. Ants and overflows are the two main factors in the spread of bedbugs.
Regularly check in coffee origin, if the density of aphids climb (30-50 head / neck region root root 10 cm), to conduct drug treatment as follows: by the ground around the roots in the form funnel stem from 10 cm, 10 cm deep, then use a water-based drugs such as Bi 58, Basudin, Subatox … with a concentration of 0.2% plus 1% of the original oil irrigate each 0, 5-1 liters of solution and install it. You can substitute one of the drugs in water by using a drug like powder or grain Bam, Sumithion, Basudin, Furadan … with the amount of 20 g / original with such treatment. Notice that when you dig around the root need drug treatment immediately, to avoid long is will bring bed bugs spread to other places and just treatment plants with aphids.
Stem borer (xyleborus morstatti)
Beetles thrive in the early months of the dry season and concentrate damage on young shoots. Borer is a small hole beneath silk makes spike stems wither and die slowly. Currently there is no effective drug control so the best measure is to timely detect and remove the stems are weevil attack. Cut inside holes 2 cm and burn the branches were termites to prevent the spread of the beetle.
Fruit borer (Stephanoderes hampei)
Weevil damage mainly on the old green fruits (when workers were hard), ripe fruit on the tree and potentially grow in dry fruit left on the trees and ground. Beetles can damage fruit and dried in the warehouse personnel when humidity is higher than 13% of particles.
– Store the dried fruit or workers in humidity below 13%.
– Field sanitation, harvesting ripe fruit in time to pick out plants and dried fruit off the ground, left on the tree to cut off the spread of the beetle.
– In areas with many termite infestation can spray 0.25% thiodan concentration during the aging effect.
Rust (Hemileia vastatrix)
This is a common type of disease damage on coffee plantations. The degree of illness depends on disease resistance of individual trees but once infected plants, both trees remaining cycles will become ill. Parasitic fungi on the underside of leaves, initially pale yellow spots then appear orange chalk class, growing lesions and defoliation caused in part or whole trees were exhausted. The disease usually occurs in the early rainy season and the fastest growing in the late rainy season.
– Use resistant varieties.
– Removal of infected seedlings from the nursery.
– Pairing shoots to replace the trees ill.
– Spray a drugs Tilt, Bumper, Sumi-eight, Bayleton concentration of 0.1% or 0.2% concentration Alvil for disease control. When spraying must satisfy the following requirements:
+ Spray 0,5-1lit solution / tree on the underside of leaves.
+ Time of first spray when 10% plants infected leaves (often occurs when trees start season 2-3 months), spray 2-3 times a month apart.
+ Annually to conduct spraying because the drug is only effective in preventing disease and only spray for diseased plants.
Root rot disease is dangerous because it can cause massive death and drugs currently no effective chemical viable prevention and treatment of this disease. Diseases caused by the combination of offensive and defensive trungPratylenchus coffeae, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia bataticola … The tree root rot disease often have the following symptoms: slow-growing tree, with little twigs and buds beyond secondary, the leaves turn yellow, root hairs and root collar rot. For prevention, must adhere to the following principles:
– Regularly check the garden for timely detection and digging, burning of diseased plants. The trees around the disease can irrigate Benlate C or Bendazol drug concentrations 0.4-0.5%, 5 liters of solution / hole, watering 2 times 15 days apart.
– Fertilizing full, symmetrical while enhancing organic fertilizer is the garden constantly high yield.
– Limit digging in the garden was sick to avoid root damage.
The disease stems dried, dried fruit
The disease is caused by imbalanced nutrition or Colletotrichum coffeanum triggers. Fatal disease mainly on twigs, branches and dried fruit fruit drop. The fungal lesions initially golden brown then spread and turn to dark brown, often concave lesions deep down compared with the diseased part.
– Planting shade trees and fertilizing reasonable balance to restrain the exhaustion plant more fruit. Cut out diseased branches.
– Use one of the following drugs to control pathogenic fungi dry twigs, dried fruit (Colletotrichum coffeanum): Derosal 0.2%, 0.2% Carbenzim, Tilt 0.1%, 0.1% Bumper. Spray early in the season (after 1-2 months of rain), spray 2-3 times 15 days apart.
Corticium salmonicolor mycosis caused. Position primarily harm in the upper branches of the canopy, near where the branches and the tops of trees. The disease usually arises in the final months of the rainy season. Initial lesions are white spots on the underside of branches later turn pink and the lesions spread throughout the perimeter of the spike can cause dieback. Prevention measures mainly detected in time to cut off the diseased branches, if the disease can appear popular drug concentration of 2% or Validacin Alvil 0.2%, spray 2-3 times 15 days apart.
e. Collar rot
The disease is often fatal to young trees in nurseries, tree in capital construction period. Diseases caused by namRhizoctonia solani. Part roots rot or dry rot caused partial slow-growing tree, yellow leaves and can lead to tree death.
– In the nursery not too moist potting soil or plank on the voting closed, adjust the appropriate light. Removing and burning infected plants trees must be sprayed around the room by 2% or Bendazol Validacin 0.2%.
– On no standing water gardens. When weeding, tending to avoid injuries in the root collar. Removing and burning infected plants heavy and light plants can cure disease by root watering every 1-2 liters of Benlate (Bendazol) concentration of 0.5% and 3% concentration Validacin, irrigation 2- 3 times 15 days apart.
Blight sulfur deficiency
Sulfur deficiency symptoms usually appear on young leaves. The young leaves are green and white, brittle leaves, leaf cover fragile, older leaves usually deciduous. Fertilization Sun discovered protein (SA) with doses of 200-300 kg / ha can prevent sulfur deficiency symptoms. To limit the sulfur deficiency may foliar sprays Sun discovered protein solution concentration of 1% or zinc sulfate concentration of 0.4%, spray 2-3 times 15-20 days apart.
Curly leaf disease caused by deficiency of zinc
Zinc deficiency symptoms usually appear on the young leaves at the top of branches, tops itself, foliage is reached. Leaf curl and yellow between the veins alternating blue and burnt at the tips, the first very short body by not develop. To treat an acute shortage of zinc can be used zinc sulfate solution 0.4% concentration of foliar sprays at the beginning of the rainy season, spray 2-3 times a month apart or zinc fertilizer Sun 20-30 kg / ha .